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English

OVERVIEW

The English Department’s goal is to inspire in students a love of literature and a facility for the English language, through working on their own writing and through rhetorical and literary analysis of notable texts. Each year of study enables students to build on their close reading skills and to develop their own abilities to write with clarity, precision, passion, and elegance. Students will analyze increasingly complex texts, both as singular units and in comparison with other seminal works so that they may think and write more logically. Students will practice these skills in both class discussion and in essay composition. Students will gain insight into voice and audience and be comfortable with various types of writing, both persuasive and creative.

Students are required to take a TVS English course on campus every year. These courses address areas of reading, composition, grammar, vocabulary, speaking, and listening, leading to an option to take writing and literature classes at the Advanced Placement level. However, English instruction at TVS also aims to give students insights into human behavior, different cultures, and ways of being, thus supporting TVS’s mission of moral development which promotes lasting values.

Rising 11th graders may apply to take Advanced Placement (AP) Language and Composition; the appropriate placement will be determined based on a student’s prior performance in English courses and the student’s application materials (including written work). Rising 12th graders, whether they have taken the AP course or the college-prep course during the 11th grade year, may apply to take Advanced Placement (AP) Literature and Composition; the appropriate placement will be determined based on a student’s prior performance in English courses and the student’s application materials (including written work).

9th-GRADE ENGLISH

The ninth grade course is unique in its dual-goals: to introduce students to high-school-level language arts (grammar, diction, style, rhetoric) as well as to introduce students to upper level literary analysis (character development, themes, symbols). As such, students will spend one semester with Ms. Wheat studying Language Arts (including SAT prep) and one semester with Dr. Johnson that will cover literary arts. The class serves to create a foundation for the college preparatory work students will do as readers, writers, thinkers, speakers, and listeners during their time in the TVS Upper School. Students will build on the writing process they learned in middle school and will hone their communication skills in class discussions. Both semesters will introduce students to literary classics as well as to more contemporary works. Texts include among others: excerpts from Edith Hamilton’s Mythology, The Illiad, The Odyssey, The Aeneid, and Gilgamesh as well as selected readings from the Genesis and Exodus (to assist students with recognizing biblical allusions). Students will also read Beowulf, Oedipus Rex and Canterbury Tales among other books.

10th-GRADE ENGLISH

Expanding on the work done in ninth grade, tenth grade English acquaints readers with additional classical texts. Students will read canonical including but not limited to: The Psalms, the Book of Job, “Rime of the Ancient Mariner,” “The Allegory of the Cave,” Macbeth, The Odyssey, Dante’s Inferno, Frankenstein and Brave New World. This class promotes critical reflection on and investigation of the texts through essay writing, Socratic style seminars, and class discussion. Writing assignments emphasize conception and composition but also stress revision. Students will continue to study vocabulary sophomore year in preparation for the SAT. Students’ daily reading assignments will vary in length.

COLLEGE PREP ENGLISH 11

Students who are enrolled in Eleventh Grade College Preparatory English will explore American literature, multi-genre writing, and critical thinking at a pace and level of rigor comparable to a university classroom. Students will read both canonical works from the American literary tradition as well as newer works by American authors, which focus on race, class, gender and place. Immersing themselves in novels, nonfiction books, poetry and drama, students will also intensively engage in persuasive, expository, descriptive and reflective writing with an emphasis on developing a writing voice appropriate for a variety of audiences and purposes. Texts will include but are not limited to: The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Scarlet Letter, The Great Gatsby, and The House on Mango Street.

COLLEGE PREP ENGLISH 12

In Senior College Preparatory English, students will turn their gaze to the global literary landscape. They will delve into multi-genre works written by American and British authors as well as by authors in translation in order to gain a preliminary understanding of various worldviews and philosophies. Students will be introduced to critical lenses (existentialism, feminism, Marxism, deconstructionism) that will prepare them to meet and exceed the demands of the college classroom. A majority of grades will come from student writings, be they in-class personal responses to a particular piece or a longer analysis derived from book length text. During the first semester, students will focus on analytical reading and writing skills. They will write various types of essays (expository, persona, narrative, descriptive) to express their ideas about the reading. During the second semester, they will further develop these reading and writing skills, as well as work on a weeks-long research project, thereby becoming an expert on the work that he/she has chosen. Texts include but are not limited to: “A Modest Proposal,” Hamlet, Things Fall Apart, 1984, and either Kafka’s Metamorphosis or Camus’s The Plague.

ADVANCED PLACEMENT ENGLISH OFFERINGS

AP ENGLISH LANGUAGE & COMPOSITION (Grade 11)

With a primary goal of undertaking intensive rhetorical-analysis work and a secondary goal of taking the English AP exam, students will focus on the relationship between content and form, dealing specifically with close reading, literary and rhetorical analysis, and compositional skills. In addition, a study of American literature seeks to understand our literary heritage. Texts will include but are not limited to: The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Scarlet Letter, The Great Gatsby, Catcher in the Rye, and either Beloved or The Color Purple. The spring semester will focus largely on analyzing rhetoric in speeches, advertising and journalism. Students will write at least 5 out-of-class essays and 12 in-class essays among other writing and testing. Admission to the course is determined by performance in prior English courses and by additional application materials. Students enrolled in this course are required to take the AP subject exam in May.

AP ENGLISH LITERATURE (Grade 12)

AP English Literature and Composition is an intensive, college-level course. Students work towards developing the following skills and knowledge: critical interpretation and evaluation of information and ideas; effective communication of ideas with others; a coherent and personal writing style; an understanding of the cultural and social values presented in the literature we study; an understanding of the various writing devices, techniques and modes; and an appreciation for literature. Texts include but are not limited to: “A Modest Proposal,” Hamlet, Things Fall Apart, 1984, The Invisible Man, Jane Eyre, Heart of Darkness and either Kafka’s Metamorphosis or Camus’s The Plague. Students will write at least 5 out-of-class essays and 12 in-class essays among other writing and testing. Admission to the class is determined by a student’s prior performance in English courses and other application materials. Students enrolled in this course are required to take the AP subject exam in May.

ENGLISH COURSE ELECTIVES

CREATIVE WRITING (Grades 10,11,12)

This foundational course is designed for students looking to learn new avenues of creative expression, or wanting to sharpen the skills they’ve already begun to develop through their love of words. We focus on three genres: the narrative essay, poetry, and short fiction. We begin with a study of the narrative essay not just because it is the ideal starting point for developing comfort and familiarity with writing and the revision process, but also because this genre is the one in which college applications are written. Students also learn how to imagine, draft, and revise work in each of the other two listed genres, both so that they can hone their own crafts but also to become adept at close reading and the workshop method. The goal of the course is for a student to become a more confident writer, a skilled reader, and a literary advocate. Throughout the year, students will create a body of polished work, culminating in a final portfolio. This course is open to all students in grades 10-12.

CREATIVE WRITING II (Grades 11, 12)

This is a semester-long course in which students already familiar with the three genres have the opportunity to create more complex, focused work in whichever genres are of most interest to them. The goal of this course is for a student to become a more adept writer in their chosen genre, a skilled reader, and a literary advocate. It is a student-driven course, in that students are expected to arrive with a familiarity and facility with the processes of reading, evaluation and workshopping a peer’s work. Therefore, Creative Writing I is a prerequisite. This is a course for students who are serious about their writing, and as such, relies on students being self-motivated, since they will be drafting or revising a piece at all times. This course culminates with a final portfolio and a written, in-depth reflection of one’s work.

Fine Arts

OVERVIEW

The Fine Arts play a critical role in the development of all students at Trinity Valley School. There is a consistent K-12 exposure in classes and field trips to world-class museums. Students are engaged in a wide range of hands on techniques and approaches. They develop analytical and creative problem solving abilities as we provide significant curricular opportunities in Music, Theater, the Visual Arts and Dance. Students are exposed to creative endeavors that are essential to pre-college development for those students who will engage in Fine Arts studies after graduation.

The Upper School Visual Arts classes begin with an introductory art curriculum that will enable them to choose from a number of advanced studio options in ceramics, photography, and traditional visual media. Trinity Valley School maintains a gallery for both student and guest artist exhibitions in the Upper and Middle School Library.

Students wishing to pursue Performing Arts are provided with many opportunities to learn and grow.

Theatre Arts Offers both introductory and advanced theater classes that focus on all aspects of theatrical production. Additionally, there are four scheduled Upper School productions each year, one of which is a musical.

Choral classes offer multiple levels of music study, with numerous high level performance and competition opportunities.

Dance students will study and explore multiple dance forms to instill proper technique and alignment, enhance strength and flexibility, and heighten rhythm and musicality. For interested students, there will be optional performance and leadership opportunities throughout the school year.

ART I (Grades 9, 10, 11, 12)

This course introduces students to the fundamental elements and principles of design production oriented problem solving, and studies in art history and aesthetics. Students will explore introductory technical skills of drawing, design painting and printmaking. Grades achieved in this class are determined by the student’s effort, self-discipline, motivation, not talent. Art 1 is prerequisite for any upper level visual art class.

ART II (Grades 10, 11, 12)

This course expands on the experiences learned in Art1. Students will be engaged in creating work that demonstrates a higher degree of technical proficiency in several media. Emphasis is placed on presentation as well as production and, there will be an opportunity to develop and begin their portfolios for college application purposes.

ART III (Grades 11, 12)

Art III is an advanced class that provides students more in-depth opportunity to strengthen their technical abilities and explore the possibilities of art making. The focus is on both new and familiar media. In this course students must demonstrate a strong commitment to their work production and presentation. They continue to develop, organize and maintain portfolios in preparation for college applications.

PHOTOGRAPHY (Grades 10, 11, 12)

Photography is a year-long curse studying the digital camera as an art making tool. The year stars with studying the mechanics of the camera and shooting assignments that are technically driven. As the year moves along, students are expected to bring creative and original thinking to their approaches. The first semester ends with a self-assignment, a personally designed set of photos. The second semester studies alternative printing methods such as cyanotypes and developing a portfolio. Equipment is provided. Students should be prepared to shoot photos approximately four hours a week or more outside of class, which includes some weekend work. The School may be able to offer this course at an advanced level, as well. Students interested in this option should contact the Chair of the Fine Arts Department.

PHOTOGRAPHY II (Grades 11, 12)

Students should be able to demonstrate a technical proficiency of the use of a digital SLR camera and Photoshop as previously taught in Photography I. This is a year- long course studying the digital camera as an art-making tool. The students are expected to bring creative and original thinking to assignments that are designed by the student and teacher together. Students are encouraged to explore techniques in photography more in depth including, but not limited to natural and studio lighting, the history of photography and photographers, and Photoshop. Student will leave the class with a professional looking portfolio of their work. Students should be prepared to photograph assignments outside of class approximately 4-6 hours per week, including weekends. Student are required to have his or her own camera equipment (digital SLR & tripod).

SENIOR PORTFOLIOS (Grade 12)

Senior Portfolios is a class for serious art students who want to experience a college-level studio class. Students will engage in developing strong creative thinking, problem solving, critical analysis and an expanded technical proficiency. It is important for students to demonstrate a high level of maturity, self-discipline and effort as they develop more sophisticated ideas in their art making. Portfolio development and organization is a major focus in this class as students prepare for college applications. This course will culminate in a gallery exhibition. Each student participating will be required to be involved and fully participate in the process of creating the art exhibition. Prerequisites for this course include Art I, Art II and a portfolio review with the instructor by appointment. This review and approval are required before enrollment into this class.

STUDIES IN GLASS (Grades 10, 11, 12)

Studies in glass is a year-long class. Students will study the art of mosaics, stained glass and fused glass. They will learn various techniques to create a mosaic window panel, stained glass pieces and decorative and functional pieces by fusing glass in a kiln. Student will spend the semester fabricating their own designs and patterns, developing ideas to make work that is production oriented. Emphasis will be placed on producing work that is technically well-crafted. Students should be able to produce solutions to technical problems and communicate their ideas both visually and verbally throughout the year.

THREE-DIMENSIONAL STUDIES (Grades 10, 11, 12)

Three- D Studies is a year-long studio course with a strong emphasis on ceramics. The first semester is focused on hand building, design concepts and developing strong technical skills. More advanced techniques in ceramics such as using clay to make sculpture and wheel throwing are taught during the second semester. Emphasis will be on technique and production skills. Students should be able to produce solutions to technical problems and communicate their ideas both visually and verbally.

STAGE ACTING I (Grades 9, 10, 11, 12)

Stage Acting is a semester course offered in the fall. Students will use theatre games and exercises to develop the mind, body and voice - the three tools of the actor. Basic pantomime and improvisation skills will be taught and students will perform short scenes and monologues with emphasis on character development. Various acting styles and methods will be explored.

STAGE ACTING II (Grades 9, 10, 11, 12)

Stage Acting II is a semester course, offered second semester. It is a more in depth study and practice of acting for the stage. The methods of various famous acting teachers (including Stanislavski and Meisner) will be studied and students will be given the opportunity to practice these in a longer monologue as well as more complex duet and group scenes.

TECHNICAL THEATRE (Grades 9, 10, 11, 12)

Technical Theatre I is a one-semester course. It is an overview of all the technical elements involved in producing a show. This course will cover the history of theater, the design process, safety, tools of the industry, materials, scenic constructions, scenic art, rigging and knots, lighting and electrics, costumes, props, makeup and wigs, sound and stage management. Participation is a large part of student success in this course. During the semester, students will work on TVS productions during class and are strongly encouraged to volunteer for after- school work calls. Class is limited to 10 students per semester and meets daily in the Black Box Theater.

TECHNICAL THEATRE II (Grades 9, 10, 11, 12)

Technical Theatre II is a one-semester course Class size is limited to eight students. The course offers an in-depth look at script analysis as it pertains to the technical elements of a production. Students are required to submit projects during the semester related to each of these elements. The course will culminate with students applying basic design and production concepts learned in class to a TVS production.

THEATRE DIRECTING (Grade 12)

This semester course is designed to help students consider the potential power of theatre to affect positive change in the world and to teach students the basics of directing for the stage by guiding them through the process of coordinating the various elements of theatre to create a unified production. The course will conclude with students casting and directing a short one act of their own choosing. Prerequisites include one semester of Stage Acting or special permission from the instructor.

IMPROVISATION (Grade 9,10,11,12)

This one semester course will focus on the fundamental elements of theatrical improvisation. Through games, exercises, and short scenes students will learn and practice the skills needed to create successful improvised performances. An especially helpful course for the actor who wants to improve concentration and focus, it is also recommended for anyone who wants to have fun while increasing the ability to be creative and spontaneous. Some basic pantomime and movement will also be taught. Prerequisites include one semester of Stage Acting or special permission from the instructor.

CHOIR (Grades 9, 10, 11, 12)

The choir course is designed to provide experience in and appreciation of music through an applied discipline - singing. The course covers four main areas: vocal technique, ear training, score reading and the performance of many styles of music.

HONOR CHOIR, T-PERIOD (Grades 10, 11, 12)

Meeting three times per week, singers with advanced sight-reading skills prepare the Upper School Choir repertoire and additional chamber choir music, and perform in all scheduled choir concerts. This full-year course will receive ½ credit of Fine Arts. NOTE: Two years in Honor Choir equals one fine arts credit.

DANCE (Grades 9, 10, 11, 12)

Dance students will explore multiple dance forms including ballet, jazz, lyrical and hip-hop. Ballet is the essential foundation of dance training and instruction follows American Ballet Theatre’s National Training Curriculum to instill proper technique and alignment while enhancing strength and flexibility. Other prominent dance forms serve to develop the dancer’s range of style and expression, connection of movement and form, and heighten rhythm and musicality. Should a student choose to participate, there will be optional performance and leadership opportunities throughout the school year. The Dance elective may be used to fulfill either the Fine Arts or Physical Education graduation requirement.

Mathematics

OVERVIEW

The Mathematics Department of Trinity Valley believes in a strong, curricular presence as well as cross-disciplinary support to other departments, particularly science. All students in the Upper School take at least one math course every semester of all four years, completing the sequences in math at a minimum through Precalculus.

The mathematical curriculum encompasses both AP and non-AP tracks, with the opportunity to study continuous and discrete perspectives. Students can begin to accelerate mathematics as early as the seventh grade. By the senior year, students have AP Statistics, AP Calculus AB or BC, and applied probability and linear algebra options. Teachers and students have the opportunity to use technology as a tool to develop their mathematics. Building a grounded, comprehensive mathematical framework allows the focused to delve into mathematical analysis and the liberal arts student to train the mind to think logically and critically. Admission to honors and AP courses will be determined by the mentioned course prerequisites and teacher recommendations with a final determination to be made by the mathematics department faculty.

In addition to computer software, students use graphing calculators to explore, to discover, and to confirm mathematics. The mathematics department requires a uniform calculator for students to have in mathematics courses starting in Algebra II, and it is recommended for students to have in Geometry. The TI-89 Titanium ® graphing calculator will be the recommended calculator for students to have in all levels of Algebra II, precalculus, statistics, and calculus. The graphing capabilities of the TI 89 Titanium ® aid students tremendously in providing numerical and visual perspectives. The computer algebra systems of the TI-89 Titanium ® give students the opportunity to develop mathematics inductively and carry out mathematical processes efficiently in order to focus on problem solving. Exams in these courses will often have non-calculator and calculator sections to provide a balance between building skills and problem solving. This calculator is approved for use of the SAT and on all AP mathematics and science exams. In Algebra I and Geometry courses, students will need access to a scientific calculator if they do not yet have a TI 89 Titanium ®. In addition to calculator work, some graphing and statistical experiences will be explored with computer software.

ALGEBRA I (Grade 9)

Students in this course develop algebraic skills and thinking. The following topics are explored in depth: operations with integers and rational numbers, solving linear equations and inequalities, working with exponents and polynomials, factoring polynomials, graphing linear and quadratic equations, solving systems of equations, rational equations, radical equations, and quadratic equations. Relations and the concept of function are embedded throughout the curriculum. Students receive considerable support due to small class size.

GEOMETRY (Grades 9, 10)

The geometry course at TVS emphasizes written mathematical communication, (i.e. logical and clear presentation of work, arguments, and explanations), reading for meaning, following directions accurately, organization, and a continuation of the process of “learning how to learn!” Algebra concepts will be reviewed, reinforced, and extended. Whenever possible, this will be done in the context of studying geometrical concepts. The following topics will be covered: Basic geometry terminology and postulates; Coordinate geometry; Angles and Parallel Lines; Triangles (Congruency, similarity, inequalities, points of concurrency); Quadrilaterals (classification, characteristics, congruency, similarity); Other Polygons; The Right Triangle (“Solving” right triangles, the Pythagorean Theorem, trigonometry); Circles; Area, Surface Area, Volume; and Transformations.

GEOMETRY HONORS WITH DYNAMIC AND DIGITAL APPLICATIONS (Grades 9, 10)

Geometry Honors with Dynamic Applications is a course designed for motivated students who excel in mathematics. Through the platform of the dynamic geometry software The Geometer’s Sketchpad, the course encourages students to explore the following curricular topics: Properties of polygons, circles, and circular regions and applying these properties algebraically; Deductive Proof; Right Triangle Properties (The Pythagorean Theorem, special right triangles, introduction to the unit circle and right triangle trigonometry); 2-D Perspectives of Area and 3-D Perspectives of Volume ; and, Transformations of geometric figures and how these transformations connect to transformations of the graphs of functions that will be studied in subsequent algebraic mathematics courses. Assessments will consist of a combination of traditional quizzes, traditional exams, and computer labs. These assessments will require students to develop mathematics multi-representationally, as encouraged by College Board in preparation for AP Calculus and AP Statistics. Because of the dynamic geometry component, a laptop computer is required for the course. Students will be required to complete a summer computing assignment to prepare them for computer explorations on day one of the course. The mathematics department will make recommendations for students to take this class. Prerequisite: One credit of Algebra I, with semester averages of at least 85.

ALGEBRA II (Grades 9, 10, 11)

This course is designed to review the basic concepts and mechanics of Algebra at a more advanced level. Then students will explore applications of linear functions and systems, matrices, and complex numbers. The students will also study the algebraic manipulations, transformations, and applications of different types of functions, including quadratic, polynomial, radical, exponential, logarithmic, and rational. Building on their work with quadratics, the students will explore quadratic relations and conic sections. Technology is used throughout the course to help the students make connections analytically and graphically. The required calculator for this course is the TI 89 Titanium ®. Prerequisite: one credit of Algebra I and one credit of Geometry.

ALGEBRA II HONORS (Grades 9, 10, 11)

Algebra II Honors is designed for students who excel in mathematics and are ready to tackle the comprehensive study of algebra topics, functions, and analytic geometry. The course begins with a quick review of topics from Algebra I before students explore linear systems, matrices, and complex numbers. Then the course focuses extensively on the study of various functions including quadratic, polynomial, radical, exponential, logarithmic, and rational. Specific algebraic manipulations and transformations are emphasized when appropriate. Building from work with quadratic functions and transformations, the course concludes with a study of conic sections. Application problems are developed throughout the course requiring students to interpret mathematics graphically, analytically, numerically, and verbally. Technology is interwoven into the curriculum to provide students an opportunity to explore numerous topics and develop a deeper understanding of the mathematical concepts. The required calculator for this course is the TI 89 Titanium ®. This course is honors level. The mathematics department will make recommendations for students to take this class. Prerequisite: One credit of Algebra I and one credit of Honors Geometry with semester grades of at least “B’s” in both courses; or one credit of Algebra I with semester grades of at least “B’s” in the course and one credit of Geometry with semester grades of at least “A’s” in the course; or one credit of Algebra I with semester grades of at least “A’s” in the course and taking Algebra II Honors concurrently with Honors Geometry.

PRECALCULUS (Grades 10, 11, 12)

This course is designed to provide the background for an introductory course in Calculus and Analytic Geometry. It covers linear, quadratic, polynomial, exponential, logarithmic, circular, trigonometric and inverse trigonometric functions, complex numbers, vectors, sequences and series, mathematical induction, and average rates of change of algebraic functions. Throughout the course, emphasis is placed upon the ability to analyze and solve problems of varying difficulty. The required calculator for this course is the TI 89 Titanium ®.

PRECALCULUS HONORS (Grades 10, 11, 12)

Students develop, describe, investigate, and apply general function properties and use them to develop trigonometric and circular functions, recursive relationships, and parametric equations. Students examine and apply conic sections, polar representations, and vectors to a variety of mathematical and real-world contexts. Application problems are developed throughout the course that require students to explore mathematics graphically, analytically, verbally, and numerically. This course is an honors course and will provide a solid groundwork for the rigor of AP Calculus. The mathematics department will make recommendations for students to take this class. The required calculator for this course is the TI 89 Titanium ®. Prerequisite: One credit of Algebra II Honors, with semester grades of at least a B in the course or one credit of Algebra II, with semester grades of an A in the course.

INTRO TO STATISTICS (Grades 11, 12)

In a world that is increasingly driven by technology, students are constantly presented with data. In this course, students will learn to design surveys and experiments; explore, summarize, and display data; use probability to understand random behavior; and, make inferences regarding populations and the effect of treatments. Gaining an understanding of the basic concepts of statistics and practicing making informed decisions regarding real data will allow the students to be more equipped to intelligently operate within this extremely quantitative world. The required calculator for this course is the TI 89 Titanium ®.

INTRO TO CALCULUS (Grades 11, 12)

Students in this course revisit and further explore concepts from previous mathematics courses including rates of change, asymptotic behavior, optimization, area, volume, and accumulation, with an emphasis on how these concepts are connected to the basic foundations of calculus. Developing the concepts of differentiation and integration analytically, graphically, numerically, and verbally through the study of polynomial, rational, trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions will include exploration of differentiation and integration techniques and the basic applications of derivatives and definite integrals. The required calculator for this course is the TI 89 Titanium ®.

INTRO TO COMPUTER SCIENCE AND DISCRETE MATHEMATICS (Grades 11, 12)

Please see Computer Science Electives (to follow).

ACCELERATED & ADVANCED PLACEMENT COURSES

ACCELERATED PRECALCULUS/CALCULUS (Grades 10, 11)

This course is designed for students who plan to give extra attention and time to mathematics study. Its accelerated nature consists of the course covering a yearlong Honors Pre-calculus course in one semester. Students begin studying calculus the second semester with the study of limits and their properties, differentiation, applications of differentiation, and basic integration. These topics shall lead to developing The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus at the end of the course. After students complete the Accelerated Pre-calculus/Accelerated Calculus yearlong sequence, they will be ready for AP BC Calculus study the following school year. The course is open to students who might not have been tracked in middle school to complete upper school BC Calculus or to students who want to learn mathematics beyond BC topics during their upper school experience. The mathematics department will make recommendations for students to take this class. Students may be advised out of the course after the first year based on assessment of effort and performance by the teacher and review by the department chair. The required graphing calculator for this course is the TI 89 Titanium ®. Prerequisite: One credit of Honors Algebra II, with semester grades of at least “B’s” in the course.

AP CALCULUS AB (Grades 11, 12)

The AP Calculus AB course is equivalent to a freshman level college calculus course. The course covers the “AB” topics of the AP Calculus curriculum including limits; derivatives of algebraic, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions and their applications; differentials and implicit differentiation; the Mean Value Theorem; Riemann sums; indefinite and definite integrals and the techniques of integration; the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus; and applications of integration and differential equations. Students use computer algebra systems to explore calculus concepts throughout the course. The required calculator for this course is the TI 89 Titanium ®. This course is AP level. The mathematics department will make recommendations for students to take this class. Students enrolled in this course are required to take the AP subject exam in May. Prerequisite: One credit of Precalculus Honors with semester grades of at least “B’s” in the course; or one credit of Precalculus with semester grades of at least “A’s” in the course.

ACCELERATED AP CALCULUS BC (THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM AND BEYOND) (Grades 11, 12)

The AP Calculus BC [FTC and Beyond] is for students who have completed Accelerated Pre-Calculus/Accelerated Calculus. The first semester begins with revisiting The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Students then review integration, explore the calculus of logarithmic, exponential and other transcendental functions, numerical approximations, differential equations, and the applications of integration. The second semester is dedicated to subject matter unique to the Calculus BC Curriculum (advanced integration techniques and applications, l’Hopital’s Rule, Improper Integrals, Series, Parametric, Polar, and Vector perspectives of calculus). The mathematics department will make recommendations for students to take this class. The required graphing calculator for this course is the TI 89 Titanium ®. This course is AP Level. Students enrolled in this course are required to take the AP subject exam in May. Prerequisite: One credit of Accelerated Precalculus/Calculus, with semester grades of least “B’s” in the course.

AP CALCULUS BC (Grade 12)

The AP Calculus BC course continues where the AP Calculus AB course ends. Hence, the course has a prerequisite of AP Calculus AB. The course includes an extensive study of the topics unique to the BC curriculum (including advanced integration techniques and applications; Euler’s method and logistic differential equations; improper integrals; series; and the parametric, polar and vector perspectives of calculus). Extended study of AB topics and additional advanced topics, applications in engineering, and mathematical modeling are integrated throughout the course. Computer algebra investigations allow students to continually explore various topics and develop a deeper understanding of the calculus concepts. The required calculator for this course is the TI 89 Titanium ®. This course is AP level. The mathematics department will make recommendations for students to take this class. Students enrolled in this course are required to take the AP subject exam in May. Prerequisite: One credit of AP Calculus AB with semester grades of at least “B’s” in the course.

AP STATISTICS (Grades 11, 12)

The purpose of the AP course in statistics is to introduce students to the major concepts and tools for collecting, analyzing, and drawing conclusions from data. Students are exposed to four broad conceptual themes:

1. Exploring Data: Describing patterns and departures from patterns;
2. Sampling and Experimentation: Planning and conducting a study;
3. Anticipating Patterns: Exploring random phenomena using probability; and,
4. Statistical inference: Estimating population parameters and testing hypotheses.

The mathematics department will make recommendations for students to take this class. Students enrolled in this course are required to take the AP subject exam in May. The recommended graphing calculator for this course is the TI 89 Titanium ®. Prerequisite: One credit of Precalculus, with semester grades of at least “B’s” in the course.

ADVANCED TOPICS IN MATH (Grade 12)
This year-long course introduces students to applied probability and linear algebra. During one semester of the year, students will explore the applied probability component. The other semester of the year students will delve into the linear algebra component. This course is advanced level and will be taught using a college model. Class will meet Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays with the expectation students will complete added readings and assignments on Tuesdays and Thursdays. The recommended graphing calculator for this course is the TI 89 Titanium®.

Descriptions of each component follow:

Advanced Topics I, Applied Probability – The Mathematics of Games and Games of Chance Component (Fall Semester): In this course, student will learn the important and beautiful elementary mathematics needed for rational analysis of various games and gambling activities. Among the games there will be analysis of poker, backgammon, roulette, craps, horse racing and lotteries. Students with a good understanding of algebraic perspectives and an interest in games of chance are prime candidates for this course.

Advanced Topics II, Introduction to Linear Algebra (Spring Semester): In this course, students will explore the theory and application of linear systems of equations, matrices, determinants, vector spaces, inner product spaces, eigenvalues and eigenvectors.

COMPUTER SCIENCE ELECTIVES

DIGITAL IMAGES I (Grades 9, 10, 11, 12)

This course is an introduction to computer programming. Students will learn the basics of the Java language in the context of creating visualizations and 2D sprite-based games with animation. Projects emphasize the role of mathematics in video game design. Students will use the Processing development environment from MIT Media labs. Computer science topics include data types, using objects, declaring variables, assignment, arithmetic operators, branching structures, loops, random functions, methods, parameters, event-processing, state concepts, scope rules, and user interaction. The course is structured as a hands-on workshop centered on programming projects that emphasize computer science and mathematics principles as they apply to areas of art, visual design, games, science, and special effects. (NOTE: Formerly listed as DIGITAL IMAGES AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS I. The course is the same. Students with credit for Digital Images I may not receive credit for both.)

DIGITAL IMAGES II (Grades 9, 10, 11, 12)

This course builds on Digital Images and Computer Graphics I with emphasis on techniques used in 3D computer graphics while continuing to write increasingly complex code. Students will strengthen programming skills in Java and be introduced to mathematics for 3D graphics. Topics include object-oriented programming, arrays, vertices, polygons, texture mapping, 3D transformations, articulated motion, polar coordinates, and parametric equations. The course is styled as a hands on workshop with a flexible schedule that allows students to explore various optional computer science topics such as microcontroller programming using Arduino, basic electronic circuits, Java basics, or image processing. Students are expected to participate in occasional cross-divisional coding experiences as peer mentors. Prerequisite: One credit of Digital Images or one credit of Computer Science: Graphics Programming I. (NOTE: Formerly listed as DIGITAL IMAGES AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS I. The course is the same. Students with credit for Digital Images II may not receive credit for both.)

COMPUTATION, FABRICATION, AND FACILITATION (Grades 10, 11, 12)

This project-based lab course is for students wishing to get in depth experience using a variety of modern digital tools that crossover between the digital and physical worlds to create computational machines that interact with the real world in interesting ways. Students will have access to 3D printer, laser cutter, microcontrollers, sensors, actuators and other emerging technologies. Students will build circuits controlled and control them using Arduino and the C programming language. Students will have a set of required projects to master basic skills and explore devices. Then, students have the opportunity to develop projects of personal interest. Students are expected to grow in leadership and to share their expertise by demonstrating their work at the museum, assisting middle school students, presenting to classmates or similar. Prerequisites. Digital Image Processing 1, Intro to Computer Science and Discrete Mathematics or co-requisite of APCS

INTRO TO COMPUTER SCIENCE AND DISCRETE MATHEMATICS (Grades 11, 12)

This is an introduction to computer programming and an exploration of fundamental concepts of computing, such as data, logic, algorithms, binary representation of data, data structures and computer organization. Students will write programs in Java to practice concepts including data types, variables, expressions, operators, branching structures, loops, methods, and arrays. Students will explore a variety of mathematical concepts central to computing such as ASCII code, binary code, logic, truth tables, formal grammars, state machines, regular expressions, set theory, tables, queries, graphs, trees, and computer architecture. Students will have sufficient exposure to computer science to determine if they would like to deepen their knowledge in AP Computer Science A. Preqrequisites: Pre-Calculus.

AP COMPUTER SCIENCE A (Grades 11, 12)

This course is a college level introduction to computer programming in the Java language. Topics include data types, control structures, algorithms, methods and parameters, object-oriented design, inheritance, polymorphism, data structures, sorting, recursion and data representation. At completion of the course, students will take the AP Computer Science A exam that corresponds to a 1-semester college course. Senior students who have a credit in an AP Calculus class can take this course and have it count toward a mathematics graduation requirement. A student who has a credit from an AP Calculus course may opt to take AP Computer Science his/her senior year to fulfill the mathematics requirement. Prerequisite: One credit of Algebra II, with semester grades of at least “B’s” in the course, and junior standing.

TOPICS IN COMPUTER SCIENCE: DATA STRUCTURES (Grade 12)

Topics in Computer Science is a course available to exceptional and motivated students who have previously displayed a genuine interest in computer science and evidence of ability to work independently. Topics vary but include such things as microcontroller programming, computer system internals, high level programming languages, databases, web development and operating systems. Students will use technologies and resources appropriate for college level study and professional use such as Java, C/C++, Python, HTML, CSS, JavaScript, SQL, PHP. Students complete independent projects and present their work every three weeks and are assessed by the computer science faculty. Interested students must submit a proposal of study. Admittance to the course is by approval of the proposal by computer science faculty. Students submit proposals to computer science faculty during the course selection period. Prerequisite: AP Computer Science.

Science

OVERVIEW

The Upper School science program at Trinity Valley reflects several objectives for our students that focus on developing critical thinking skills while stimulating interest and excitement in the natural sciences. At its heart, the science sequence fosters both an understanding of and appreciation for the processes of scientific inquiry.

To instill in graduates the wide-ranging scientific literacy intimately tied to making critical decisions in a society oriented toward science and technology, all students are required to complete three yearlong laboratory classes in the natural sciences. The mandatory science sequence of biology, chemistry, and physics emphasizes both content knowledge and the ability to develop the problem solving skills necessary to understand and to solve interesting questions. Honors classes, which allow students to explore each of the core scientific disciplines with greater rigor, are available to the interested student.

Interwoven into each course are numerous hands-on laboratory activities that allow students to develop experiments and to learn techniques. As students move in AP courses, they perform laboratory work equivalent to what is done at the college level. In order to ensure that students have sufficient time to complete this work, all AP science classes will meet for 7 periods a week. This double blocking of AP science courses will place extra demands on student time, particularly for those individuals taking a six-course load. Students interested in AP science courses should have thoughtful discussions with their teachers and advisors to discuss the consequences of this extra time commitment.

Please note: The Texas Recommended High School Program, guidelines used by many colleges and universities in Texas for admission and certain types of need-based financial aid such as the Texas Grant, requires four years of science. If a student is interested in applying to schools such as The University of Texas at Austin, Texas A&M University, Texas Tech University, or Baylor University, it may be advantageous to complete a fourth science course. In addition to the Texas Recommended High School Program, data seems to suggest that other admission offices at colleges around the country are considering or in the process of implementing a requirement of four years of science.

BIOLOGY (Grade 9)

The ninth-grade Biology course at TVS is designed to transform students into biologically literate citizens through the study of living systems. The course covers modern biological concepts ranging from the molecular and cellular level to the organismal and population level. Major topics include cellular and molecular biology, genetics, biotechnology, evolution, human anatomy and physiology, and human health and nutrition. Laboratory work is a fundamental part of the curriculum.

HONORS BIOLOGY (Grade 9)

Honors Biology is designed for students who excel in the sciences and are interested in taking AP science courses in the future. The origin of life on earth and evolutionary theory are integrated into class discussions throughout the year. In addition to the topics covered in the non-honors course, this class will emphasize the following:

1.) Controlled experiments (special emphasis is placed on inquiry using the scientifi c method including the use of probeware, microscopy, dissection and cutting-edge biotechnology equipment);
2.) Human Disease Pathology (including infectious disease, genetic disease, cancer, and substance abuse);
3.) Book excerpts and Selections from current popular journals (Time, National Geographic, etc.) – including assigned writing work related to these readings; and
4.) CPR and First-Aid Training.

Eighth grade students interested in taking Honors Biology must apply for admission to the class during the course selection process. This application, coupled with a critical thinking assessment administered during the spring of the eighth grade year, will be used by the science department for placement into the course.

CHEMISTRY (Grade 10)

In this introductory course, students investigate the structure and properties of matter. Classroom lectures are complemented by associated laboratory activities, which allow students to collect data, analyze it, and reach a meaningful conclusion. Students become familiar with the basic aspects of nomenclature, structure, bonding, periodicity, and elementary reactions of inorganic chemistry.

HONORS CHEMISTRY (Grade 10)

Honors Chemistry expands upon the regular chemistry offering at Trinity Valley in several ways. Although the topics covered in both courses are similar (atomic and molecular structure and nomenclature, stoichiometry, quantitative analysis of the states of matter, basic thermodynamics, and the major classes of reactions of inorganic chemistry), the Honors course examines each topic in greater mathematical depth as well as spending significant time helping students to build useful mental models of molecular phenomena. Students also learn the importance of clear, concise writing in demonstrating conceptual understanding of chemical and physical principles. Finally, the course considers the interdisciplinary nature of chemistry, using nonfiction readings to demonstrate the critical importance of chemical discoveries in a cultural context. Students interested in enrolling in Honors Chemistry should speak both to their current biology teacher and to the Honors Chemistry instructor as teacher recommendations by a student’s current math and biology instructors will be used by the science department for placement into the course.

PHYSICS (Grade 11)

This introductory course is the culmination of the three-year science requirement, providing a strong background for later college courses in physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering. Major concepts and principles discussed leverage skills learned in algebra, geometry, and precalculus. The topics covered include mechanics, gravity, electricity, optics, and sound. Emphasis is placed on investigative laboratory work and the development of problem solving skills. Precalculus (or a more advanced math course) is a co-requisite. Students must enroll in physics in the junior year unless they enroll in an AP science course in grade 11 or are taking Algebra II in the junior year.

HONORS PHYSICS (Grade 11)

While the Honors Physics course explores the same topics encountered in the standard physics class, the pace of the course is significantly quicker and all subjects are investigated in more depth. Additionally, content including rotational dynamics, magnetism, and modern physics is integrated into the course. Emphasis is placed on comprehensive laboratory activities and an intense development of problem solving skills. A student must be enrolled in the honors precalculus course or higher to be considered for the class. A student must successfully complete the Honors Physics course to be eligible for enrollment in AP Physics C. Students must enroll in a physics course in the junior year unless they enroll in an AP science course in grade 11 or are taking Algebra II in the junior year. Students interested in enrolling in Honors Physics should speak both to their current chemistry teacher and to the Honors Physics instructor as teacher recommendations by a student’s current math and chemistry instructors will be used by the department chair for placement into the course.

SCIENCE ADVANCED PLACEMENT ELECTIVES

AP BIOLOGY (Grades 11, 12)

This is a second-year course taken by students who have had a year of chemistry, a year of biology, have shown some special interest in life sciences, and are inclined to pursue science in college. It is the equivalent of first year, introductory college biology for science majors. Main topics include biochemistry, cellular structure, energetics of metabolism, biosynthesis, histology, heredity, evolution, anatomy and physiology, biodiversity (including botany and zoology), and global ecology. Major themes include science as a process, homeostasis, energy transfer, the relationship of structure to function, health, disease pathology, evolutionary theory, and the interrelationship of biology and society. Special emphasis is placed on advanced laboratory work, including PCR, gel electrophoresis, DNA Fingerprinting and the use of computerized probeware. Students are required to take the AP Exam in May. Note that all AP sciences meet 7 periods per week, meaning that students will utilize their free period twice a week to complete work in AP Biology. Students should carefully consider the added time commitment of the course when planning their academic schedules.

AP CHEMISTRY (Grades 11, 12)

Students who have done above average work in first-year chemistry have the opportunity to take AP Chemistry as a second-year course. It is taught at the level of freshman college chemistry, and all assessments mirror the best practices of the finest college courses throughout the country. Many of the topics covered are the same as those presented in the first-year course, but the level of sophistication is much higher. Additional concepts covered in AP Chemistry include reaction kinetics, thermodynamics, and all aspects of chemical equilibria. The associated lab activities mirror the college lab experience and emphasize detailed lab work requiring students to record and analyze data while reinforcing chemical principles with extensive time devoted to developing skills in technical writing. Students enrolled in this course are required to take the AP subject exam in May. Students should expect 30 minutes to 1 hour of homework each night in the class. Note that all AP sciences meet 7 periods per week, meaning that students will utilize their free period twice a week to complete work in AP Chemistry. Students should carefully consider the added time commitment of the course when planning their academic schedules.

AP PHYSICS C (Grade 12)

The Advanced Placement Physics C course is meant to provide students with a modern introduction to college-level work in both mechanics and electricity and magnetism. Students will thoroughly explore the fundamental principles of classical physics from an atomic perspective, allowing students to leverage skills learned in chemistry. All students take both the AP Physics C Mechanics and E&M exams at the conclusion of the course. Extensive laboratory work and introductory computer modeling using the python programming language are integral to the course. Because of the advanced mathematics needed for the class, students must be concurrently enrolled in AP Calculus AB or higher to take the class. In addition a student must have completed the Honors Physics class as an additional prerequisite for the course. Students should expect 30 minutes to 1 hour of homework each night in the class. Note that all AP sciences meet 7 periods per week, meaning that students will utilize their free period twice a week to complete work in AP Physics C. Students enrolled in this course are required to take the AP subject exam in May. Students should carefully consider the added time commitment of the course when planning their academic schedules.

SCIENCE COURSE ELECTIVES

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE I (Grades 11, 12)

The Environmental Science elective at Trinity Valley is a semester long course open to juniors and seniors. The course is offered to students wishing to use scientific methodology to objectively explore environmental issues. The course will provide students with a conceptual framework to better understand the complex and dynamic interrelationships of Earth’s natural systems, and consequences of changes to these systems, both natural and human-induced. Themes explored throughout the course include Earth Systems and Resources, the Living World, Population Dynamics and Land and Water Use. For each theme, students will be able to critically assess how human value systems influence decision-making associated with environmental problems. They will also be expected to participate in laboratory and field investigations and “real-world” project-based assignments, both of which are integral to the course.

METEOROLOGY (Grades 11, 12)

In this one-semester course, students investigate basic meteorological principles in order to understand the climate phenomena that affect our daily lives. By studying the aspects of the physical environment that we collectively call weather, such as forms of condensation and pre- cipitation, air pressure and winds, weather patterns and severe weather, students develop an appreciation for the way that climate changes impact their daily lives as well as the planet as a whole.

Social Studies

OVERVIEW

The Social Studies curriculum is designed to help students develop critical thinking and analysis skills and abilities to express their insight both verbally and in writing. Students study physical and human geography, micro and macro economics, government, and ancient and classical World, modern European, Asian, and United States History. Reading, researching, and writing appropriate to grade level and ability are taught in a sequential way so that by the senior year students are well prepared to confront the complexities of the world and the nation. They are also prepared for analysis, critical thinking, and research and writing skills that are required in the more rigorous college curricula.

Students in the Upper School experience a minimum of five courses in history, with select electives offered as well. Advanced Placement courses exist in at least three areas, and college bound essay writing is emphasized throughout.

ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL WORLD HISTORY (Grade 9)

This full-year course investigates a variety of topics including the geography, history, government, economics and culture of various ancient world civilizations. We begin with the dawn of civilization in the fertile Crescent of Mesopotamia and end with the emergence of the modern world, mid-1600s. The goal of these investigations is to learn to think critically about the world and obtain the skills and knowledge to become active global citizens. History is the story of our shared human past as well as the regional and temporal divergences in these pasts. This course considers both change and continuity starting with the earliest civilizations and culminating on the dawn of the modern era. In one portion of the course, students will analyze trends and key events across a broad geographical and temporal spectrum from Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, pre-Columbian America, Vedic India and dynastic China. In addition, this year-long course surveys political, religious and cultural developments in the western world from the emergence of the Greeks, through the end of the Thirty Years War (1648). Other major periods include the rise and fall of Rome, the distinct European culture in the Middle Ages which blends Classical, Christian, and Germanic elements, the Renaissance and the Reformation. While some people and dates will be important markers of change, this course focuses on broader themes such as empire, revolution, identity, the development of ideas and the rise and fall of civilizations. Students will develop the historical skills of understanding historical causation, recognizing patterns of continuity and change over time, comparing, contextualizing, and forming arguments with the appropriate use of historical evidence. Students will also interpret primary source documents and learn how to synthesize evidence. Each student will complete a major research project.

MODERN WORLD HISTORY (Grade 10)

Fulfilling the Trinity Valley requirement for the sophomore year in social studies, this course involves examinations of significant African, Asian, and Middle Eastern History elements from recent centuries along with a lengthy survey of Western Civilization since the 1500s. African study will examine the slaves trades, both Atlantic and Indian Ocean, and proceed through the era of colonialism to an examination of the problems faced by African nations today. Middle Eastern studies begin with the Ottomans, proceed through the Palestine/Israel conflicts and conclude with recent events out of Iran, Iraq, Syria, Afghanistan, and Egypt. Asian studies encompass overviews of India since 1763, China since 1839, and Japan since 1868. European study will involve an overview of the Reformation, heavy focus on Tudor-Stuart England, ancient Regime France through the Revolution and Napoleon, the rise of Russia, Germany and Italy, and the British Empire. The issues behind both World Wars and the Cold War will occupy the final weeks of the school year. Students will practice world geographic knowledge as fundamental to an understanding of political and economic events and trends. The complexity of evaluation material will gradually increase through the year in expectation of analytical and cognitive development, culminating in a sampling of Advanced Placement questions. Although the textbook is an established secondary work, students will examine primary source documents with a view to understanding their significance to, and proper role in, historical understanding.

MODERN WORLD HISTORY HONORS (Grade 10)

This course will investigate a variety of themes, including the political, economic, social, cultural and beliefs systems of various world civilizations as well as the interaction of these civilizations with their physical environments from the 15th to the 21st century. The overarching goal of these investigations is to learn to think critically about the world and obtain the skills and knowledge to think like a historian. Students will learn to craft historical arguments from historical evidence, evaluate the relationships between multiple historical causes and effects, construct models of historical periodization, compare and contextualize multiple historical developments within one society and between different societies and interpret and synthesize diverse interpretations of the past as revealed through both primary and secondary sources. We will seek to understand a broad sweep of civilizations from the Americas to East Asia and from the Age of Exploration to the Age of Globalization. While some people and dates will be important markers of change, we will focus on broader concepts such as empire, revolution, identity, and the development of ideas. This course will ensure that students have the requisite knowledge and skills to take the Advanced Placement exam in World History in the spring if they so desire.

ECONOMICS (Grades 11, 12)

Economics provides an introduction to the study of the principal ideas, concepts, and theories of macroeconomics. Students should develop an understanding of what the economy is and how various economic policies impact the overall economy. The course will examine the global economy and how it affects the economy of the United States. The European Union, NAFTA, and the emergence of China and India as major participants in world trade will also be investigated. The course is designed to prepare students to become financially literate adults. Students should understand how to become financially responsible citizens with regard to the use of credit cards and through investment opportunities in the financial markets.

HONORS ECONOMICS (Grades 11, 12)

Honors Economics is a rigorous course blending traditional lecture and project based learning. Throughout the year, students will be introduced to the major theories of macroeconomics and microeconomics, entrepreneurship, finance (personal and business), business law, current economic trends (to include international trade), and human centered design/design thinking. Students will be encouraged to develop a mindset for innovation. The course will utilize traditional examinations and alternate assessments.

GOVERNMENT (Grades 11, 12)

A junior/senior level one-semester course, Government emphasizes the history and meaning of the U.S. Constitution and the workings of the American government. Political theory, Constitutional debates, the court system, Congress, the Presidency, and civil rights are major topics of consideration. Discussions will also focus on current affairs and contemporary issues.

UNITED STATES HISTORY (Grade 11)

United States History is a survey of the American experience from the Colonial period to the present. The course covers significant events in detail and concentrates on helping students develop good analytical skills. Students receive direction on essay writing, oral presentations, and research.

20TH-CENTURY WORLD CONFLICTS (Grade 12)

A study of the political motivations behind, demographic factors involved within, tactical and strategic issues across and weapons technology impacting upon, selected civil wars and international conflicts worldwide. The Boer War and late colonial conflicts, Chinese Civil Wars, Mexican Civil War, World War I, Russian Civil War, Irish Civil War, Spanish Civil War, World War II, Cold War confrontations, Nigerian Civil War, Indo-Pak Conflicts, and Middle Eastern Wars involving Iran will be the possible topics. Because the governments of China, Iran, Nigeria, Britain, Mexico and Russia will be touched on, this course may be of benefit to students independently studying for the College Board’s Advanced Placements Examination in Comparative Government and Politics.

BRITISH HISTORY (Grade 12)

A one-semester elective for seniors, British History begins with earliest times and continues as far chronologically as time will permit. Emphasis is placed on the evolution of concepts influencing constitutional and cultural developments, the geography of Britain, and the events and personalities that have shaped the history of today’s United Kingdom. Students will read articles and watch videos on various aspects of the subject. Assignments will include completion of a map of the British Isles and an oral/written report on English shires. Receiving special attention are the origins of the monarchy and the Parliament, the concept of the rule of law, and the shifting balance within England’s constitutional system.

CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS IN CONSTITUTIONAL LAW (Grade 12)

The course provides an in-depth study into the work of Supreme Court Justices throughout the last 75 years in the area of civil liberties. Judicial interpretation of the Bill of Rights and the significance of the 14th amendment are central to the discussion. Students will study areas of law by reading both majority and dissenting opinions from an assortment of court cases. Students will also participate in several moot court exercises. Admission to the course will be determined by the social studies department faculty.

ADVANCED PLACEMENT ELECTIVES

AP UNITED STATES HISTORY (Grade 11)

AP United States History is a chronological and interpretive study of the subject from its pre-Columbian backgrounds to the present. Students study the methods and meanings of history in general and the major political, economic, diplomatic, social/cultural, and constitutional trends and themes in United States history in particular. Attention is given to historiography and to the analysis and interpretation of historical documents. Students are expected to develop skills in writing critical essays, drawing conclusions from primary sources, and answering analytical multiple choice questions—all skills that must be exhibited on the AP exam. Students enrolled in this course are required to take the AP subject exam in May. Admission to the course will be determined by the Social Studies Department faculty. For required summer reading assignment, see Dr. Shelton.

AP EUROPEAN HISTORY (Grade 11)

Covers the time from 1450 to the present, with major emphasis on cultural, economic, political, and social history of Britain, France, Germanic lands, and the Russian Empire; it will give secondary treatment to Italy, Spain, Portugal, and Southeastern Europe with the Ottoman Empire. This will be an intensive study requiring significant reading, writing, interpretation of primary source materials, discussion, and mandatory taking of the College Board’s national examination in May. Higher-level thinking, concrete retention, and analytical adaptation abilities are a prerequisite. Ideally, students should have basic familiarity with the Renaissance and Reformation from previous courses, and Advanced Placement experience.

AP GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS (Grades 11, 12)

AP Government is a full-year course open to juniors and seniors. It furthers the TVS mission to develop wide constructive interests and intelligent citizenship. Understanding and appreciation of the U.S. Constitution, its history and principles, are a major focus. Students are introduced to trends and data analysis related to such topics as voter behavior, election results, focus groups, long term political and social trends, demographic composition, and public policy. Data are presented in the form of graphs, charts, and tables to provide experience in analyzing and interpreting political trends. Current affairs and interaction among the three branches of government, the bureaucracy, and the press are analyzed. The court system and civil rights are topics receiving major consideration. Admission to the course will be determined by the Social Studies Department faculty. For required summer reading assignment, please see Mr. Kenny. Students enrolled in this course are required to take the AP subject exam in May.

AP PSYCHOLOGY (Grades 11, 12)

The objective of Psychology is for students to understand the methods used by psychologists in their practice and in scientific study. The course is designed to introduce students to the history of psychology as a science, research methods used by psychologists, biological bases of behavior, sensation and perception, states of consciousness, cognition, learning, motivation and emotion, developmental psychology, personality, intelligence testing, abnormal psychology, and social psychology. Special emphasis is placed on psychological experiments of the twentieth century in order to discover the role of ethics in psychology. Students enrolled in this course are required to take the AP subject exam in May.

World Languages

OVERVIEW

The study of world languages at Trinity Valley School reaffirms the school’s mission to develop intelligent citizenship as the students strive to become leaders of the future. As the global community becomes closer, the study of Chinese, French, Latin and Spanish each contribute to the development of a student who understands other peoples.

The TVS world language offerings give modern language students an opportunity to communicate with other members of the global community. As all TVS students have studied Latin in seventh and eighth grades, some choose to fulfill their graduation requirement in Upper school by further mastering the Latin classics, works that underlie the school’s historic humanities curriculum. All students develop an appreciation of diverse cultures through reading and through a variety of field trips and cultural explorations as they progress through three years of the same language in Upper School. The study of multiple languages is possible.

Spanish is taught four days a week in grades K through six. Exploratory Chinese is taught at the elementary level once a week. At the seventh grade level students may choose Chinese or Spanish. Latin is a requirement in seventh and eighth grades. In grades nine through twelve the student is required to study Chinese, French, Latin or Spanish for three years.

CHINESE I (Grade 9)
An introductory Chinese course is offered for the student who has had no previous experience with the language. Students learn basic communicative functions while listening, speaking and Chinese characters are emphasized. The school’s ability to offer this course may be contingent on the prevalence of student interest. Students who have completed 8th-grade Chinese or Chinese I may not enroll in this course without recommendation from the Head of Upper School and the World Language Department Chair. From year to year, TVS will reevaluate the viability of offering Chinese 1 in Upper School based on student interest and staffing priorities. TVS students who have been enrolled in the Middle School Chinese program will matriculate to Chinese 2 in the Upper School. Rising 9th graders are welcome to demonstrate an interest in an Upper School offering of Chinese 1 so that the Language Department and Upper School Administration can make the most informed decision, but students may need to enroll in a second preference for their language study or Upper School students who are just beginning their study of Chinese may need to be willing to take Chinese 1 through an online parter.

CHINESE II (Grade 9)

Students who have completed 8th Grade Chinese or Chinese I will continue their study of Chinese in this course. Students will complete the basics of listening, speaking, reading, writing, typing and culture. Prerequisite: Chinese I or eighth grade Chinese

CHINESE III (Grade 10)

In this course students develop their listening, speaking, reading, writing and typing skills at the intermediate level through exposure to Chinese arts, history and society. Students will work toward oral proficiency through conversation, discussion and oral presentations. Prerequisite: Chinese II

CHINESE IV (Grade 11)

Chinese IV is designed for students who have taken Chinese III. The goal of this course is to improve and enhance students’ skills in speaking, listening, reading, and writing with an emphasis on developing their communicative skills in order to have conversations on a range of topics relating to daily life. Through various projects and activities the students will further their understanding of the Chinese language and culture. At the end of the course, students will be able to achieve Intermediate- Mid Level according to ACTFL Chinese Oral Proficiency Interview guidelines. Prerequisite: Chinese III

FRENCH I (Grade 9)

French I is an introductory course for the student who has had little or no exposure to the French language. Students learn basic communicative functions while listening and speaking skills are emphasized. Students will also be introduced to Francophone cultures. The first year will be primarily a face-to-face class. The subsequent years may include a blended online model with instructor support.

FRENCH II (Grade 9)

Students who have completed an 8th grade French course or French I will enroll in French II. This course will introduce the student to more advanced grammatical structures and continue to place emphasis on listening and speaking skills. Students will learn more about Francophone cultures through readings and other authentic material. Writing skills are also emphasized. Prerequisite: French I or 8th-grade French

FRENCH III (Grade 10)

Students complete the development of intermediate grammar skills while beginning to develop advanced communication skills in preparation for advanced French. Much emphasis is placed on oral expression. Magazine articles and French literature are used to develop listening and reading skills. Prerequisite: French II

LATIN II (Grade 10)

Students who have completed 8th-grade Latin will continue their study of Latin in this course. The goal is to prepare the students to read and study Latin literature. Following a careful review, students learn all remaining Latin grammar and syntax. The literature includes excerpts of Caesar, Livy, Ovid, and many more authors. Prerequisite: Latin I or eighth-grade Latin

LATIN III (Grade 10)

The goal of Latin III is for the students to become critical readers of Latin prose. This course develops the ability to read and analyze antique Latin prose. The students will look beyond the basics of grammar, form and vocabulary to begin exploring genre, figures of speech, tone and cultural context and relevancy. Prerequisite: Latin II

LATIN IV (Grade 11)

The goal of Latin IV is for the students to become critical readers of Latin Poetry. The emphasis of the course is not only upon achieving competence in reading Latin poetry but also on the refinement of critical analysis of the texts and on expanding textual interpretation. Students will be expected to prepare translations and to participate in class discussions as well as learning to compose critical essays that deal with both the translation and textual analysis of the works read. Prerequisite: Latin III

SPANISH I (Grade 9)

For the student who has had no previous experience with the language, an introductory course is offered. Students learn basic communicative functions while listening and speaking skills are emphasized. Students who have had 8th-grade Spanish or Spanish I may not enroll in this course without recommendation from the Head of the Upper School and the World Language Department Chair.

SPANISH II (Grade 9)

Students who have completed 8th grade Spanish will continue their study of Spanish in this course. This course deepens the students’ knowledge and exposure to culture of the Spanish-speaking world through the presentation of new and essential vocabulary and grammatical structures. Emphasis is placed on strengthening communicative skills in writing, reading, listening and speaking. Prerequisite: Spanish I or 8th grade Spanish

SPANISH III (Grade 10)

This course develops the intermediate levels of listening, speaking, reading and writing skills. The course emphasizes acquisition of advanced vocabulary in cultural and conversational settings, the introduction of advanced grammatical concepts and in depth study of Spanish-speaking countries. Prerequisite: Spanish II

SPANISH IV (Grade 11)

This course continues to develop language skills especially through the study of Spanish art and the reading selections of literature. Emphasis is placed on advanced grammatical structures, creative composition, discussion of style, as well as literary and art analysis and criticism. Prerequisite Spanish III

ADVANCED PLACEMENT ELECTIVES

AP CHINESE LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (Grade 12)

AP Chinese Language and Culture covers the equivalent of a third-year college course. This course places an emphasis on communication both oral and written communication. Students will continue to learn language control and other communication strategies in real-life situations. Students will further their study of the Chinese culture through the use of authentic materials. Interpersonal, interpretive and presentation skills will be practiced throughout the course in preparation for the AP Chinese exam. Students enrolled in this course are required to take the AP subject exam in May. Prerequisite: Chinese IV

AP FRENCH LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (Grade 12)

This course may be offered online with instructor support. This course covers the equivalent of a third-year college course in advanced French composition and conversation. Students will work on improving their proficiency in speaking, listening, reading and writing in the French language. This is accomplished through an extensive review of grammar, use of idiomatic expressions, writing of compositions, listening exercises and the reading of literary excerpts. Resources will include authentic material from the Francophone world from newspapers, magazines, news sources and French radio and television. These will be used to further develop language skills and the students’ understanding of Francophone countries. Students enrolled in this course are required to take the AP subject exam in May. Prerequisite: French IV

AP LATIN (Grade 12)

This course is equivalent to a third year university course. Students read in Latin selections from Vergil’s epic poem The Aeneid. Close reading of the Latin, detailed examination of Vergil’s literary technique and translating Latin poetry at sight receive particular emphasis. Students read the entire poem in English. Students enrolled in this course are required to take the AP subject exam in May. Prerequisite: Latin IV

AP SPANISH LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (Grade 12)

This course covers the equivalent of a third-year college course. Students will work on improving their proficiency across the three modes of communication. The course focuses on the integration of authentic resources including online print, audio, and audiovisual resources; as well as traditional print resources that include literature, essays, and magazine and newspaper articles; and also a combination of visual/print resources such as charts, tables, and graphs; all with the goal of providing a diverse learning experience. It is assumed that students have previously been exposed to advanced language structures in the courses leading up to the AP Spanish Language and Culture course; however, review of the mechanics is done within the contextual framework of each unit as needed. Students enrolled in this course are required to take the AP subject exam in May. Pre-requisite Spanish IV

Cross-Departmental Elective Offerings

RELIGION IN CULTURE (Grade 10,11,12)

Religions play a formidable role in cultures throughout the world. This is a one-semester elective for 10th-12th graders that focuses on the academic study of religion and its many manifestations. Students will be introduced to religious traditions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, Judaism, and Christianity. At the center of this course, however, are discussions surrounding effects that religions have had on contemporary and past celebrations, conflicts, social movements, political systems, and much more. Students will further their research, writing, and presentation skills by working in groups and independently on projects to explore fundamental—but by no means obvious—questions like “what is religion?” and “how can it be studied academically?” An academic understanding of religion in general will provide a critical and necessary jumping off point for in-depth investigations of the role of religious traditions, practices, and beliefs in a variety of contemporary cultural contexts.This is a non-traditional course; most weeks, students will be required to meet 2-3 times/week in person, and they will do independent & group work and use our Course Blog for discussions the other 2-3 times/week. Students will help decide topics we cover, readings, and the overall daily structure of the course.

SENIOR PROJECTS (Grade 12)

Senior Projects are designed to encourage seniors to assume greater ownership of their program during their final semester at TVS and to imagine ways that they can take initiative for their own learning. As well, the Senior Project opportunity encourages seniors to imagine ways they can put their passions and skills to the service of the broader community. This course allows students to pursue academic or service-oriented interests on or off campus. Students interested in pursuing a Senior Project must submit a completed application in the fall. Students will be notified of this date. The project must be approved by the Senior Project Committee and satisfactory completion of a final presentation before the Committee in May is required for graduation. Senior Projects will be evaluated on a pass/fail basis.

SOCIAL JUSTICE (Grade 9,10,11,12)

The goals of this spring semester course are for students to explore social issues about which they have a strong interest and to further develop their research, writing, revising, and presentation skills. Students will discuss examples of inequality and discrimination in the U.S. and around the world so that they can recognize and learn how to respond to societal injustices. Specific topics will vary based on student interests, but broader discussions will include concepts of power, race, and gender. We will also discuss how national and international legal, political, and economic policies and organizations shape societies. Ideally, students will take what they have learned and apply it to their own lives in the future. This course focuses on all four of TVS’ Mission pillars: fine scholarship; the development of wide constructive interests; intelligent citizenship; and spiritual and moral development which promotes lasting values. This is a non-traditional course: students will be required to meet 2-3 days/week in person, and they will do independent and group work and use our Course Blog for discussions the other 2-3 days. Students will help decide topics we cover, readings, and the overall daily structure of the course.

SPEECH & DEBATE (Grade 9,10,11,12)

This course focuses on creating effective communication skills through practicing various types of speech and debate. Topics include research, organization, adapting to an audience, topic selection, reasoning, and evaluating the discourse of others. The speech portion of the course will include the development and presentation of persuasive and informative speeches, and focus on argument construction, presentation, and refutation.

YEARBOOK I (Grade 11,12)

Yearbook I students cover sports events, photograph fine arts productions, capture candids and write copy for all school events provided for on the ladder. Yearbook I students will envision and communicate theme, select photographs on the school yearbook. Yearbook I students will support Yearbook II staff in completing the above tasks, write and edit the majority of copy, and serve as staff photographers as needed. All Yearbook I and II staff members will be graded on the degree to which they meet the challenges of yearbook production in the following areas: Print & Photographic Media Literacy, Newswriting and Information Gathering, Document Production and Distribution Advertising, Standards and Ethics, and Professionalism in Work Relations. Advisor approval is required for admission into this course. The yearbook advisor will describe the application process to students each spring.

YEARBOOK II (Grade 12)

In addition to completing the tasks and meeting the goals of Yearbook I students, Yearbook II students assume responsibility for the design and completion of the Trojan Walls annual commemorating their final TVS school year. Yearbook II students will envision and communicate theme, select photographs on the school yearbook, construct computer layouts and page designs, and be responsible for the final content that comprises the Trojan Walls. Yearbook II students oversee the Yearbook I staffers in covering sports events, photographing fine arts productions, capturing candids, and writing copy) and they likewise complete such assignments during peak production periods. All Yearbook I and II staff members will be graded on the degree to which they meet the challenges of yearbook production in the following areas: Print & Photographic Media Literacy, Newswriting and Information Gathering, Document Production and Distribution Advertising, Standards and Ethics, and Professionalism in Work Relations. Advisor approval is required for admission into this course. The yearbook advisor will describe the application process to students each spring.